Posted by: seanmalstrom | January 16, 2019

Email: About Battlefield 5 poor sales

Hi Master! I’m glad you’re back! You’re the only game news source that matters!

Just sharing: had you heard about the EA’s Battlefield 5 poor sales? Here are some highlights:

But, at the end of the day, it appears to be just a bad game.

If your game is creating political polarization, then it isn’t much of a game. Games are FUN. Even TALKING politics during gaming is like putting turds in the punch bowl. The reason why the game is ‘bad’ is because making the game ‘fun’ was not the focus. Something else was.

This goes with all games. Many times, a SERIOUS STORY is the focus. This is why the game isn’t fun because that wasn’t the focus. When Sakamoto said, “Other M was to explore Samus Aran’s maternal instincts,” I knew the game would flop. The FUN of Metroid should be the focus. ‘Maternal instincts’ does not sound fun to gamers, and it certainly is not why people buy Metroid games.

Why do people buy games? To have fun.

I think one reason why younger game developers do so well in game development is because they have not been corrupted yet by the politics, the bureaucracy, and so on. Innocently, they just make ‘what is fun’. They then make tons of money. Old developers marvel at their ‘genius’ and never consider that maybe it wasn’t genius that propelled the kids but anti-genius that stiffed them.

Instead of focusing on the ‘genius’ of gaming, why not focus on the ‘anti-genius’? How do you make a bad game? You don’t see too many videos on that! But I’d say the best way to make a bad game is to not focus on making a game. Make it a movie. Make it a novel. Make it a sermon.

It’s amazing that a massive company like Electronic Arts loses so much money off of not understanding basic fundamentals. I marvel at how these companies can just allow their franchises to go down the drain. Nintendo very nearly does it too.

Posted by: seanmalstrom | January 16, 2019

Email: The Prodigal Malstrom Returns

Dear Sean,

I’m glad to hear from you.

I had to start analyzing events like, “what would Malstrom think?”.

My father passed away in October last year, so it was a bit of a double blow to also “lose” one of my favorite analysts too.

You need to train another Malstrom.

Take care,


I think there is much more interest and people doing analytical or historical or thought provoking pieces about gaming. This is how the situation was in 2005…

People looked at sales numbers but only in the context of ‘console horserace’.

Saying ‘power of console hardware doesn’t translate to sales’ was considered extremely provocative. It is not the power of the hardware that matters, it is the power of the console’s SOFTWARE. Software SELLS hardware, not vice versa. Today, no one argues these things, and they are accepted as background fact.

Liking ‘2d Mario’ was to be ridiculed. Don’t you know? That is OLD Mario. Get with the times! You only like that because of nostalgia! Then NSMB DS and NSMB Wii came and blew everything up. If THAT didn’t show 2d Mario wasn’t viable in selling software AND hardware, what was? You’d have to go to Wii Sports or Tetris to find more hardware selling power.

Complaining about 3d Mario got tomatoes thrown at me from the Nintendo crowd. Today, it is accepted there are people out there, even Nintendo fans, who prefer the 2d incarnations over the 3d.

Zelda was never truly criticized aside from ‘Wind Waker graphics’. Aonuma was always ‘genius’. And, of course, Ocarina of Time was the ‘best’ so every Zelda had to match that formula. Zelda got stuck in a rut that Zelda fans weren’t really seeing until Skyward Sword. With Breath of the Wild, they made a prototype of 8-bit Zelda and started the ‘gameplay’ roots from that. This was the right idea. This is what we’ve been screaming about forever. Breath of the Wild gives me that same feeling of original Zelda than any other Zelda. Zelda 2 is masochistic with awesome music and incredible combat. Link to the Past I was actually disappointed first time I played through it. “That’s it?” Still a great game, but it felt like the better graphics were retarding Zelda into linear tunnels with ‘puzzles’. Breath of the Wild is the step in the right direction. No one disputes this.

There is much more interest in gaming history today.

One thing more recent is the blowout hits of NES and SNES Classic Minis. Nintendo was stunned. Apparently, Nintendo obtained market data showing that YOUNG PEOPLE wanted the NES and SNES Classic Minis. They couldn’t believe it. They thought only nostalgia 30 year olds wanted those old consoles or older people. But it backed what you knew and what I’ve been hammering here forever: classic games are truly classic. They belong to the ages. Everyone wants to experience a genuine classic.

My challenge for this blog is to write things that no one else is saying. If other people are saying it, why bother reading the blog? Why would I bother writing a blog that says what other people are saying? So I must continually move the pillars. The way the pillars are moving is towards more interest in the ludology or deeper understanding of games. I think there is hunger to dive into the abyss of game making and why classic games are classic (and not because of the year they came out).

Posted by: seanmalstrom | January 16, 2019

Email: Welcome back

I was going to wait until this weekend to send a checkup email. HAPPY NEW YEAR!
Really, your blog and this email address are the only means of contact so I kept telling myself that you’ll eventually update or that if something had of happened an email wouldn’t do anything. I’m glad you’re doing better for yourself now.
Hmm… OK. Happy New Year.
Posted by: seanmalstrom | January 15, 2019

2019 Mission: Clearing out the Backlog

Due to my increase in salary, I have bought the entire 3DS and Switch library.

No, really!

And I am currently in the process of building a $3000 PC mean game machine. It will play Star Citizen on max settings because Chris Roberts games always makes me buy new PCs.

“How can you clear out a backlog?”

This is the question, is it not? I have a question for the reader. Why did we not have a backlog in the 8-bit or 16-bit generations?

“We rented games.”


“Games weren’t as long.”

But we still didn’t play them to completion. Who played Silver Surfer for NES to completion? The game was impossible!

The point is that my old school habits were to RENT the entire game library and buy the games that I loved to play. And I would buy the sequels when they came out. For example, I rented Mega Man 1. It was interesting game, but it was not worth buying. I rented Mega Man 2 and lost my shit. I bought Mega Man 2 and then PRE-ORDERED Mega Man 3 before it came out. Then I bought Mega Man 4, got disappointed, and stopped buying Mega Man.

The point is to not play games to completion if you are not having fun. The concept of ‘completion’ is not a gaming one, but one of the Gaming Industry put in for their shitty Cinematic Games.

Thoroughly playing a game doesn’t not mean finishing it. I just play it until I cannot play anymore. Then I toss it out.

Unfortunately, I buy all the games. Good thing I bought physical so I can SELL the shitty games.

So I am going to go through my stack of 3DS and Switch games and NOT PLAY games I discover are not fun. If a game doesn’t grab me within 4 hours, at least, then I declare the game is terrible and not worth my time. No exceptions.

I do not care what ‘hype’ the game has online.

I do not care what ‘reviews’ the game has.

My quality threshold is the game calling me back. If a game cannot do this, then it is not really a fun game, is it?

*bump* Hey, are you still alive, or has the meat finally killed you? :)


I am still alive and well. I am also eating nothing but meat, and I do not cheat. I now look DECADES younger.

Above: Doc Brown got rejuvenation. I just ate meat.

I notice I attract younger girls now. Had a 24 year old all over me. But it may also be due to my vastly increased income salary. (How do women figure these things out? They have a nose for it.)

I think my ‘break’ was good because I need it after OVER A DECADE being on this page… and because the content needs rejuvenation. Doing game development will give me a different tack to put on with these games.

One thing I can say: Iwata was right… back in 2005. Video games are no longer special. When you realize that YOU can make a video game… it just doesn’t’ seem as cool. Nevertheless, I’ve been carrying a concept for the past few decades for a game. I’m going to see it through. Who knows, maybe you might even buy it for your Switch.

I do not recommend game development for anyone unless you are young or have some ridiculous idea you want to do. Game development is extremely difficult, ultra competitive, and is not as profitable as doing ANYTHING ELSE. I am doing this to extinguish a torch as much as to carry one.

There is a dead genre out there. And, as arrogant as it may be to say, I believe only I can carry it forward. Arrogance is actually useful. You must be simultaneously arrogant and humble. Arrogant is good during the creation phase. You keep going. Humble is good during the editing phase. This goes for every form of entertainment creation.

Posted by: seanmalstrom | January 15, 2019

State of Gaming

What has been going on since I have been away?

Answer: Not much.

Smash Ultimate came out and appears to satisfy the over-hyped Smash fans. I like Smash, but I am not a ‘Smash player’. People more familiar with the franchise can better describe Smash Ultimate’s quality. As a single player game, it is kinda lame. But that is to be expected. I appreciate Sakurai putting on a single player mode to the game to balance out the game’s great multiplayer. When you have awesome single player and awesome multiplayer in a single game, you get what I call The Perfect Game. There are not many Perfect Games out there. Some of the Bomberman games (like Bomberman ’94) that have compelling single player design, matched with the extraordinary multiplayer, qualify as a Perfect Game. Games that can be played both single player and multiplayer also qualify such as World of Warcraft. If your friends aren’t on, you just go do something by yourself. A game I like to throw up as a ‘perfect game’ is Star Control 2 (which a junction was placed upon Stardock… *snark* *snark* *snark*). A game like Contra would qualify as would Super Mario Brothers 3 and NSMB DS (multiplayer on that thing is ridiculously fun) and NSMB Wii.

I have been playing some games lately. Let me give you some impressions.

Phantasy Star Ages

I bought and played through ALL THE WAY on Switch. I missed out on Phantasy Star and kept hearing it described as a RPG series such as Dragon Quest or Final Fantasy. Sega gamers wax much nostalgic about the game.

It. Sucks.

I’m sorry, but it does! It has nothing to do with the game’s age. The issue with Phantasy Star 1 (I haven’t played the others) is everything to do with Ultima. People who liked Phantasy Star obviously played it before Ultima. Why? Phantasy Star is nothing but an Ultima clone.

“Phantasy Star is different because it is sci-fi.” So is Ultima. Ultima I and Ultima II had sci-elements such as using hovercraft to roam around the overworld. In Ultima II, you could go to different planets. Phantasy Star’s sci-fi is NOT original.

“But Phantasy Star had first person dungeons.” So did Ultima I, II, III, IV, and V. Ultima 0, Alkabeth, was nothing but first person dungeon. The crass sci-fi elements and the first person dungeons is a game screaming that it is copying Ultima.

Ultima I and II had a crazy amount of sci-fi and other elements mixed in. But in Ultima III, the series matures and crystallized around a Lords of the Rings type fantasy concept. It is this fantasy concept that Dragon Quest and Final Fantasy copied going forward. Phantasy Star, for whatever reason, is copying Ultima I and II!!!! OK, it has the Wizardry party, but come on!

I liked the music of the game. But everything else was bad. There is a reason why Phantasy Star 1 did not catch on in the West. To be fair, Dragon Quest 1 and Final Fantasy 1 didn’t really catch on either in the West (Dragon Quest will never catch on in the West hahahaha). I think Dragon Quest 1 and Final Fantasy 1 are still interesting and enjoyable to play today in large part because of their cohesive fantasy universe. Phantasy Star makes no sense. Why do I have a talking cat as a party member? And why does that cat stop talking when I get it? WTF?

Again, the music is fantastic, and I love the backgrounds (such as the mountains). Nice touch. But the game is clunky as hell and is extremely overrated even in 1988. While I thought Dragon Quest and Final Fantasy had a cute charm to them, they seemed like ‘kiddie’ RPGs (though Final Fantasy 1 was wickedly cool with that aesthetic for whatever reason). In 1988, I was playing Ultima V which just shit on all the ‘JRPGs’. When I played Final Fantasy IV, I was like ‘WHOA, what is this?’ as the MUSIC and game story had really improved. 16-bit was when JRPGs really found a differentiation from Ultima and other PC RPGs.

I’m going to skip Phantasy Star II. Don’t need to grind.

Phantasy Star III seems like a trainwreck. I’m going to avoid.

I do intend to play Phantasy Star IV. I do have the Genesis Collection for Switch as well as have the original for Genesis. I will let you know if the game holds up to the great RPGs of the 16-bit Era (Final Fantasy 6, Chrono Trigger, etc.). I actually played Chrono Trigger first in the year 2000 so I got into way after the fact.


Smash Brothers Ultimate

I’m currently playing the single player and now I am asking… “Why am I doing this?” I’m not exactly having fun. This game seems designed for a younger person. Seems that there are lots of mobile influences in it. Maybe I should just stick to normal battle mode instead of ‘bizarro RPG mode’.


Bravely Default

Since I loved Octopath, you’d think I would be totally into this. Nope. The game is slow, tedious, and doesn’t seem balanced right. This game seems overrated. I’d rather just replay Final Fantasy V. Then again, the tiny 3DS screen doesn’t help.


Metroid: Samus Returns

I’ve started this but have not gone far. I’m about ready to turn it off for good.


How can Sakamoto mess this up? There are BIZARRE design choices in this. Why is there melee combat? It is a ‘button timing’ thing which may be connected to Sakamoto’s past doing rhythm games or something. It is not fun. And it doesn’t make sense in the game. Why doesn’t someone from Nintendo catch Sakamoto’s shitty decisions? Super Metroid’s controls are STILL fine. Just use that. Make wall jumping easier, maybe, but just use Super Metroid’s controls. This isn’t that hard. But Sakamoto fucks it up as he does everything.

Since I haven’t gotten far, maybe this is explained. But why the fuck are there ‘doors’ and ‘elevators’ on SR388, the homeworld of the Metroids? Metroids do not use doors. Metroids do not use elevators. The additional stuff like ‘background with lights that come on as you kill Metroids’ is just stupid. This game makes no sense. And I bought Metroid II when it was released on Gameboy.

Samus Returns simply isn’t fun. I feel like Sakamoto is trying too hard to turn Samus into a ninja. I do not want emphasis on acrobatics, I want emphasis on exploration and atmosphere. I want a coherent game universe. Why am I punching monsters when I get hurt if I touch them? Sakamoto is so worthless. Even fans can make better Metroid games than he can.

And no, I am not bashing Sakamoto. Samus Returns is on fire sale everywhere because no one wants the damn thing. The first three Metroids held their price (OK, not Super Metroid but that is another story).

I want good Metroid, Nintendo. Not Sakamoto shit.

Let’s look at this story from Eurogamer:

Nintendo platformer New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe sold 25 per cent more boxed copies during its Nintendo Switch launch week than it did on Wii U.

It’s enough – in a very quiet January week – for the game to top the UK chart in terms of physical copies sold.

Nintendo has topped the chart with a first-party Switch game three times previously (with Smash Bros., Mario Tennis Aces and Mario Kart 8 Deluxe).

According to Chart-Track data, NSMBU Deluxe sold more than Mario Tennis during its launch week, but less than Smash and Mario Kart.

Game sales note: when they use the word ‘percentages’, they do not want to tell you the actual unit numbers. If the numbers were impressive, they would actually be using the numbers “e.g.: 8 million sold this month!”.

This is poor PR fluff.

Why not compare the release of NSMB U… any version… to NSMB Wii? Or NSMB for DS? They do not want to do that. Such comparison tells the story of NSMB franchise collapse (perhaps just as perplexing to Nintendo as NSMB franchise ascension in the first place).

You know what else, reader? Super Mario All Stars sold more copies during its launch week than the original Super Mario Brothers did for the NES (in America). “You can’t say that, Malstrom.” Why not? “It is because original Mario game released to a cold market. Mario was unknown at the time. NES wasn’t even sold nation wide. But Super Mario All-Stars had a warm market and was sold nationwide.” What does that matter? I am writing a PR fluff piece on how much more ‘successful’ Super Mario All-Stars is to the original Super Mario Brothers based on the launch week.

It is this type of dishonest reporting that annoys me. Why compare the launch period of a game on one console that had 0 install base with the launch period of a game on another console that has been out for two years? There is no way a game at console launch  will outsell a game that comes out years later.

Let me illustrate this with absurd headlines:

NSMB U outsells launch period for original Super Mario Brothers on NES!

NSMB U outsells launch period for Super Mario World for SNES (OK, this one may not be true).

You could go on and on with every launch game.

NSMB U outsells launch period for Tetris for Gameboy (OMG!!! goes headlines). This is just stupid. When the install bases are so different, the launch comparison doesn’t make sense because you have two different market sizes.

Also, add on to the fact that NSMB U is not the easiest to find Wii U game (let alone a physical version of the Luigi expansion). And that NSMB U NEVER came down in price. NSMB U is still $60.

I can see why people are going to buy NSMB U on Switch especially if they didn’t have a Wii U. But what I can’t see is any actual substance to the narrative that ‘Wii U failed because of the hardware. The games were really awesome. Look how well they sell on Switch.”

But Wii U games do not sell that well on Switch (aside from something like Mario Kart which sells well on EVERY Nintendo system ever made).

How is Bayonetta 1/2 faring? What about Donkey Kong Country Tropical Freeze? Exactly.

Note how they have not ‘re-released’ Pikmin 3. Hopefully Miyamoto has been reigned in for making expensive games that do not sell.

A better argument for ports selling on Switch is…

Cartridge based- Consumers are more willing to buy a cartridge than a disc. [Smart Ass: “What about N64 versus PlayStation?” Magnificent Malstrom: “What about the entire Nintendo portable library versus any competition?” Consumers will choose carts over discs IF they are priced the same. If not, then they will go the cheaper option.]

Portability- All major Nintendo NES and SNES games got re-released on the Gameboy, Gameboy Advance, and DS. Why did people buy them again? Because they were portable.

The difference between NSMB U on Wii U and on Switch is one if portable. On Wii U, you can make-believe it is portable, but it is still not portable. For Switch, the ‘port’ stands for ‘portable’. 

I feel sorry for anyone buying NSMB U (any platform) and think they are getting something like NSMB Wii or an earlier Mario game. NSMB U just isn’t well done. But a bad 2d Mario game is better than most of the crap out there.

Posted by: seanmalstrom | January 14, 2019

Where is Malstrom? Oh no!

Image result for most interesting man in the world

Above: Malstrom with his gaming ‘playmates’

I am in the midst of game development. I have already sent out early test copies of my game. Yeah. That’s right, Electronic Arts. I am coming for you!!! And Activision. And all the rest of you motherfuckers who make shit.

On a more serious note, there have been revolutions in game development that has ‘automated’ the process. This is in large part how ‘indie’ games can be made today. There are all these ‘kits’. The problem, of course, is people’s games feeling the same.

Game development is not just a battle royale of programming. It is programming and art and analysis. You cannot underestimate how important it is to analyze your game correctly. The biggest challenge is ‘Where do I put in my time?’ Your time is limited, and game development sucks time away like a blackhole.

The question is not ‘how can I do this’ or ‘can I afford this’? I can do anything these 4k gaming mother-frackers can do. You want me to get the Unreal Engine and make something that makes Star Citizen look like Space Invaders? OK. But the problem is time. The time to do that would be enormous. I would be required to hire a team of hundreds to speed up matters.

When you develop a game, the most important question is managing your time. You want your time to be managed efficiently (so you get more stuff done).

Another thing I have learned about game development is that it is like Reverse Sculpture. You slather on some mud, shape it, then you add another layer, then another layer, and so on and so forth. At first, the shape is simple. But then you slowly add details. You keep making the layers finer and finer. You keep being hard on yourself, but within time outsiders begin to say that it looks pretty good.

Game development, just like writing a book, is not for the weak. The reason why stupid people become game developers is the same reason why stupid people become showrunners for TV shows and directors for movies. They are able to finish a project and put it out the door to be sold. This ability is perhaps more rare than programming and art skills. I am sure old school developers like The Miyamoto are extremely concentrated and dedicated… a personality that never, ever goes home except for health reasons (and the health is for long term productivity reasons).

So if you are working on a game, I have one piece of advice. It is the most important advice anyone has ever told you. Do not give up. Finish your game. Put it out there. If it doesn’t sell, oh well. But if you give up, not only will it not sell, you will forever wonder ‘what would have been’. It is self-inflicted torture. Don’t give up. Do not give up.

Posted by: seanmalstrom | September 21, 2018

Email: Worlds of Origin conclusion, Nintendo Online

Master Malstrom,

I had a few questions. First was if you had any timeframe to give us for when you’re wrapping up the Worlds of Origin articles. I liked them quite a bit and was bummed out that you never finished it nor started the other one about the little known company. Second of all, I noticed how you were once again right about Nintendo holding old school games hostage by locking the NES joy-cons behind online subscription. My question to you is this, are these companies straight up evil at this point?

After all the data mining that has come to light, I truly don’t believe they’re ignorant. Nintendo, Sony, and all the rest know what we want. They not only don’t care, but their solely interested in doing whatever they want while having total control over every aspect of consumer interaction. That obsession with control seems to be the motto of every tech business nowadays. I get why the big ones like Google and Microsoft act like that, but are Nintendo and the rest banking on them shutting down their OS’ to prevent piracy? That’s the only reasoning I can see behind them going so draconian on Games as a Service. If the big names lock down the PC, then they’ve effectively eliminated competition. Eventually, the old consoles and PCs will go kaput, and your only option is their terrible subscription. It really does seem like these companies are all conspiring to enslave the customer.

Always a pleasure Master Malstrom

The word is leverage. With Nintendo, their perspective with classic games is ‘How do we leverage this to boost today’s sales?’ Let’s go through some of their decisions with classic NES games…

-Animal Crossing Gamecube has NES games inside it. (People buy Animal Crossing just to get to the NES games. This wakes Nintendo up of the value of some of these games.)

-GBA NES Classic Series. (NES games re-released on GBA makes people go crazy. They buy Nintendo handheld hardware that resembles the NES.)

-Virtual Console Wii (People literally buy NES games to play on their Wii. Iwata mentions an issue is that people buy a Wii, just buy Virtual Console games, and they are satisfied. They don’t want this. They want you to buy new software.)

-3DS Ambassador Program (After the disastrous launch of 3DS, Nintendo ‘apologizes’ by giving out SNES games.)

Wii U Virtual Console (Failed Wii U console so Nintendo throws Virtual Console games to keep Wii U users happy.)

NES Classic Series (Stand-alone product sells out. Good cashflow when Nintendo just had 3DS and Wii U).

Switch Online (NES games are to push Nintendo’s online service.)

Everything Nintendo does with their classic games is to leverage them for some present day need. They will never make the product you want (a modern day NES).

I think Nintendo has taken too many trips to the NES well. The buckets of instant money will no longer be there. You can only go back to the well so many times.

As for the Origins conclusion, it has been done, but it wasn’t published because I was wondering whether or not to add more. After writing all of that about Open World and Ultima, I was surprised to find how… disgusted… I’ve been with modern day Richard Garriott. Everything Garriott has done since Ultima Online has been terrible. What to make of this? I don’t know. I think after Ultima IV, other people at Origin really drove the Ultima series forward with V, VI, VII, and VII Part 2. I think Garriott may have been great when he was hands on with the Apple 2, but now that he is hands off with these more complex systems, the games just don’t materialize well.

Game development is a hands on thing. Everyone at Nintendo must know the technical details of the hardware. “And who told you this, Malstrom? Miyamoto?” He did! Miyamoto revealed this once in an interview. You just can’t have philosophies and ‘visions’ when making a game. You need hands on.

The truth is that with every artistic endeavor from game development to art to writing and such, the process of the creating is where the magic happens. For example, a writer is not that smart. A big reason why a writer seems smart is because it takes a while to write the essay/book/whatever. During that process of writing, there are many revelations. A novelist’s initial outline is often ignored when writing a novel because new stuff appears and becomes apparent during the creation process. This is true with game development. You have to be hands on with game development. It is a craft. A trade.

You want the another string of ‘articles’ about that lesser known game company? OK. I’ll try to get it done.

Posted by: seanmalstrom | September 21, 2018

Email: I’m glad I never bought a Switch

At first it seemed like Nintendo was getting things right, but now it
looks like they’re making the exact same mistakes they did with the
Wii U along with some even worse ones.

I don’t play many games anymore but I didn’t miss out on Breath of the
Wild because I got the Wii U version. Aside from a slight graphics
downgrade and lower framerate in some areas, it’s the exact same as
the Switch version but without paying $300+ extra for it. And pretty
much everything else on the Switch hasn’t interested me.

The biggest mistake I’ve seen is them re-releasing Wii U games. The
ones that didn’t sell well on the Wii U will not sell well on the
Switch either because they weren’t good games in the first place.

Also, when it comes to retro games, pretty soon the Wii Shop Channel
will be shut down and it’s only a matter of time before the Wii U
eShop does too, meaning that Nintendo’s new “always online” (like
Steam) Switch shop will be the only legitimate way to play them. My
Wii U is mostly a retro game box and I don’t have to check-in just to
play Super Mario Bros, but if it ever dies (taking all my games with
it, and even if they were transferable the eShop will be gone with no
way to re-download them) I’ll be screwed because there’s no way I’m
ever going to subscribe just to play old games.

Switch is worth it so far with Zelda BoW “Wow!”, kickass physical indie games like Dead Cells, Steamworld Dig 2, Sonic Mania, Minecraft, etc., and Octopath Traveler. I’m not as impressed with the other offerings.



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